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Fracture is a broken bone. Proper care calls for splinting, casting or bracing to align the bones, protect the area and allow for healing. Improper initial management of fractures can lead to significant long-term disability and, potentially, mortality.
A joint contracture is characterized by chronic impairment of joint motion caused by structural changes in the muscles, ligaments, and tendons. This may occur in any joint of the body as a result of immobilization, nerve injuries or disease.
One of the most common orthopedic injuries in dogs. CCL Tears or rupture is the most common cause of degenerative joint disease in the stifle joint. CCL rupture occurs in dogs of all sizes, but is most prevalent in large and giant breeds. CCL rupture can occur in cats, as well, but with less frequency.
The most common cause of Achilles tendon rupture is a fall. Puncture wounds can also partially or completely rupture the tendons in the backs of the hind legs. A rupture or tear in this group of tendons can be either partial or complete. Surgery is usually necessary to help the ruptured tendon heal.
A condition that affects large and giant breed puppies. Due to a defect in the normal growth process, the cartilage of the joint pulls away from the bone, resulting in pain and inflammation. If left untreated, the condition can lead to lameness in the affected limb.
Caused by excessive force on the carpus, leading to the tearing of the ligaments and fibrocartilage and collapse of the carpal joint. This can be caused by sudden trauma such as falls or injury during exercise or chronic conditions such as abnormal posture while weight-bearing.
Intervertebral disks are the “cushions” in the space between spinal vertebrae. These disks are subject to a number of degenerative conditions and forces that predispose them to bulge or rupture over time. This rupture leads to damage to the spinal cord. IVDD in dogs is a common cause of back pain, rear limb paralysis, and inability to walk or feel the back legs. Certain breeds including the dachshund, shih tzu, Pekingese and Beagle are commonly affected.
The terms varus and valgus always refer to the direction that the distal segment of the joint points. For example, in a valgus deformity of the knee, the distal part of the leg below the knee is deviated outward, resulting in a “knock-kneed” appearance.