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A fracture is a broken bone. Proper care calls for splinting, casting, or bracing to realign the bone, protect the limb, and allow for healing. Improper care for a fracture can lead to a poorly or improperly fused bone which can cause pain and discomfort.
A joint contracture is characterized by chronic impairment of joint motion caused by structural changes in the muscles, ligaments, and tendons. This may occur in any joint of the body as a result of immobilization, nerve injuries, or disease.
This is one of the most common orthopedic injuries in dogs and are the most common cause of degenerative joint disease in the stifle (knee) joint. CCL ruptures can occur in dogs of all sizes, but are most often seen in highly active dogs.
The most common cause of Achilles tendon rupture is a fall. Puncture wounds can also cause a partially or completely ruptured tendons. This types of rupture often causes a plantigrade stance where the dog will have their heel on the floor. Surgery is usually necessary to help the ruptured tendon heal.
The CCL ligament in the knee tears either partially or fully due to excessive use. This causes the knee joint to become unstable, allowing the abnormal forward movement of the tibia known as tibial drawer. Abnormal movement must be prevented in order to reduce pain and allow healing of the joint.
Due to a defect in the normal growth process, the cartilage of the hip joint doesn't fully form around the femoral head. This leads the femur to pull away from the hip, resulting in pain and inflammation. If left untreated, this condition can lead to lameness in the affected limb.
This is caused by excessive force on the carpus, or wrist, leading to tearing of the ligaments and fibrocartilage in the carpal joint. This is seen as the collapse of the carpal joint.
Intervertebral discs are the “cushions” in the space between spinal vertebrae. These discs are subject to a number of degenerative conditions and forces which predispose them to bulge or rupture over time. This bulging or rupture leads to damage to the spinal cord. IVDD in dogs is a common cause of back pain, rear limb paralysis, and inability to walk or feel the back legs. Certain breeds including the Dachshund, Shih Tzu, Pekingese and Beagle are commonly affected.
The Intervertebral Disc protects the spinal cord from injury by acting as a shock absorber.
The Intervertebral Rings rupture, allowing the pulpy nucleus of the Intervertebral Disc to protrude and press on the spinal cord.
The pulpy nucleus of the Intervertebral Disc presses on the Intervertebral Rings causing a bulge which presses on the spinal cord.
The terms varus and valgus refer to the inward or outward angulation of a joint. This is easiest to see by the distal (furthest down) segment of the limb. For example, in a valgus deformity of the carpal (wrist) joint, the joint has an inward angulation causing the toes to be angled outward.
An amputation is the removal of a limb and can be either a partial or full limb. Partial amputations leave some amount of the residual limb. Full amputations generally take the entire limb away and are for more severe injuries. While this may seem like a drastic option, it actually removes a source of pain, either injury or disease, and allows for a better quality of life.